Advanced Lithium Batteries for Automobile Applications
ABAA 12

6 - 9 October 2019 • Ulm, Germany

Advanced Lithium Batteries for Automobile Applications
ABAA 12

6 - 9 October 2019 • Ulm, Germany

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Invited speakers

List of invited speakers:

Biography:
Moon Ho Choi is a Chief Technology Officer and Vice President at ECOPRO BM, which focuses on developing and commercializing advanced Ni-rich cathode materials for high energy lithium ion battery. He is working on the development of energy materials and commercial scale process for 20 years. He received PhD in Energy Engineering at Hanyang University, BS in Chemical Engineering at Seoul National University. In 2018, his team was awarded the best IR52 from Korean prime minister for the development of high capacity cathode material for lithium ion battery.

Abstract:
Innovative cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

The layered nickel-rich cathode materials are considered as promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity and low cost. Their price competitiveness is especially on the rise as cobalt price is increasing rapidly. However, a few serious problems, such as the unstable powder properties and gas evolution, have prevented the practical application of the nickel-rich cathode materials. The unstable powder properties originate from residual lithium compounds which promote the gas evolution and cause the gelation of the slurry during the electrode fabrication process. Therefore, we developed a novel surface treatment to reduce residual lithium compounds without reducing electrochemical properties. Moreover, the treatment enhances the surface stability so that the layered nickel-rich cathode materials may have a long life.

Biography:
Dr. Jang Wook Choi is Professor in School of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Seoul National University, Republic of Korea. His research interest spans from fundamental materials study to technological application in energy storage. 

Dr. Choi received his Ph.D. degree at Caltech in 2007 in the area of molecular electronics and electrochemistry under supervision of Profs. Jim Heath and Fraser Stoddart. He performed his postdoctoral research at Stanford University from 2008 to 2010 in the field of lithium-ion batteries under supervision of Prof. Yi Cui. He has conducted his independent research at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) since 2010 until he moved to Seoul National University in 2017.
He has received prestigious awards in recognition of innovative achievements including Hong Jinki Creative man Award, Young Scientist Award from the President of Korea, and Creative Knowledge Award from the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning. He was also selected as a highly cited researcher from Clarivate Analytics in 2017 and 2018.

Abstract:
Structural Water Containing Materials for Post-Lithium-Ion Batteries

Although Li-ion batteries have been successful in various applications, their shortcomings with regard to high cost and global maldistribution of raw materials, as well as safety concerns have promoted alternative rechargeable batteries based on other carrier ions represented by sodium and magnesium ions, targeting grid-scale energy storage systems (ESSs). However, many electrode materials in these emerging systems often suffer from sluggish kinetics due to the larger size or bivalency of carrier ions, limiting electrochemical performance particular in specific capacity and operation voltage. In this talk, I will introduce a new approach of engaging intercalated water in layered cathode materials. The intercalated water improves the performance of the given materials substantially by shielding electrostatic interactions or maintaining the crystal frameworks over repeated cycles. Detailed effects of intercalated water will also be described, along with promising potentials towards aqueous operations. Electron microscopy characterization for in-depth understanding of these materials will also be introduced.

Biography:
Mark Copley is an Associate Professor of Electrochemical Materials at WMG, The University of Warwick. His research spans active materials, additives, scale-up, processing and novel cell design.

Mark has recently joined WMG, previous to this he was a Senior Principal Scientist at Johnson Matthey, working on projects relating to developing new classes of active materials and demonstrating their viability at scale. He has also collaborated, extensively, on developing next generation battery technologies.

Abstract:
The evolving story of the UK’s transition to battery based electrification

This presentation will delve into current collaborative work based at WMG, including Faraday Challenge based projects. Internal competences at WMG will be discussed, with details given on our cylindrical and pouch cell capabilities.

Further to the above, the on-going development of the UK Battery Industrialisation Centre (UKBIC), its connection to WMG, and future plans will be disseminated.

Biography:
Yi Cui is a tenured Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. He received his PhD in Chemistry at Harvard University (2002), B.S. in Chemistry at the University of Science and Technology of China (1998). He was a Miller Postdoctoral Fellow at University of California, Berkeley before joining Stanford University as an Assistant Professor in 2005. His current research is on nanomaterials design for energy and environment and two-dimensional materials. Yi Cui is an Associate Editor of Nano Letters. He is a co-director of the Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium of the US Department of Energy. He has published more than 300 peer-reviewed papers. He founded Amprius Inc. in 2008, a company to commercialize the breakthrough high-energy battery technology invented in his lab. He co-Founded 4C Air Inc. to develop novel filtration solution to remove PM2.5 particle pollutants from air. He has received numerous awards including MRS Kavli Distinguished Lectureship in Nanoscience (2015), Resonate Award for Sustainability (2015), Inaugural Nano Energy Award (2014), Blavatnik National Award Finalist (2014), Wilson Prize (2011), the Sloan Research Fellowship (2010), KAUST Investigator Award (2008), ONR Young Investigator Award (2008), MDV Innovators Award (2007), Technology Review World Top Young Innovator Award (2004), MRS Gold Medal of Graduate Student Award (2001).

Abstract
Lithium Metal Anodes:
Materials Design, Interface and Characterization

Yi Cui 1, 2

1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University
2
Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, California, USA

Lithium metal anode is critical for new generation of high energy batteries. We identified that the two root causes of Li metal problems are high chemical reactivity and infinite relative volume change during Li metal plating and stripping. Nanoscale materials design represents a new powerful paradigm shift and offers new solutions to address these challenges. Here I will present our understanding and progress on: 1) Nanoscale design of host and interface for Li metal anodes; examples of host materials include graphene oxides, hollow carbon spheres, metal fluoride and oxide. We also developed robust interfacial layer materials and synthesis process for BN, Li3N and LiF. 2) Demonstration of cryogenic electron microscopy applied to battery materials research, leading atomic scale resolution of Li metal dendrite and solid electrolyte interphase. We also established the correlation of the SEI structure with battery performance.

Biography:

Professor Edström is professor of inorganic chemistry and leader of the Ångström Advanced Battery Center (ÅABC) with more than 80 researchers at Uppsala University, Sweden. She coordinates BATTERY 2030+ - the EU Large-Scale Research Initiative, comprising stakeholders with interest in battery research all over Europe. She has also experience as a leader of the Swedish Strategic Research Area of Energy – StandUp for Energy which is an alliance between four Swedish universities and she has more than 10 years of different leading positions as dean and advisor to the vice chancellor of Uppsala University. Currently she is a trustee in the board of Faraday Institution.

Her research is focused on studies of lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries but also on new battery chemistries and systems. A particular interest is in developing techniques for studying interfaces in batteries and to understand the underlying mechanisms of material degradation. All components of a battery are therefore studied. She has published more than 250 scientific papers, she has an H-index of 57, and she has graduated more than 20 PhD students.

She is an elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, honorary doctor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, and 2018 she received the grand prize from the Royal Institute of Technology KTH. She is since 2019 a Wallenberg Scholar.

Abstract:
How to prevent aging of commercial batteries for automotive applications?

A large portion of the research performed within the Swedish Electromobility Center (SEC, http://emobilitycentre.se/) is devoted to understand aging phenomena in commercial battery cells to be used for automotive applications. The studies are generally performed on earlier generation of chemistries and cell-designs due to legal restrictions preventing the details of the latest generations to be exposed publically. Despite of this, new knowledge can be obtained for cells, for example, containing NMC cathodes and LTO anodes. In this presentation, aging mechanisms will be discussed based on observations made of the interfaces between electrodes and electrolytes at various temperatures and cycling conditions.

Biography:
Peter Faguy received his PhD in Physical Electrochemistry from Case Western Reserve University and over the past thirty years has spent time in academia, the private sector, and since 2009, the US federal government.  In industry and in academia, Dr. Faguy has created and managed research and advanced technology programs across several fields including battery materials and manufacturing processes, With the Department of Energy, Dr. Faguy manages a large portfolio of R&D projects for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy directed at realizing the promise of next generation lithium batteries and advanced processing science and engineering. He also serves as a technical expert in the areas of electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

Abstract:
The Cobalt Reduction Initiative within the US Department of Energy’s Battery R&D Portfolio

Advances in lithium ion battery cathode materials over the past fifteen years, as carried out at US national labs, universities and corporations and supported by funding through DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Office have arguably provided the foundation for the development and implementation of lithium ion batteries for automotive applications. That effort has evolved from small targeted materials development projects at Argonne National Laboratory that produced the lithium- and manganese-rich layered transition metal oxides to an ambitious consortium project, led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to realize the enormous potential of cobalt-free disordered rocksalt transition metal oxide intercalation materials. Currently there are more than twenty-five distinct projects under management within the VTO Next Generation Lithium ion Battery (NG-LiB) Cathodes portfolio. All of these have as a major objective the reduction and possible elimination of cobalt from the NG-LiBs.

Cobalt is considered the highest material supply risk for EVs in the short and medium term, currently it represents up to 20% of the weight of the cathode in lithium ion EV batteries. This introduces two very serious critical material supply risk  factors in the adoption of NG-LiBs in electric vehicles. Cobalt supply has traditionally been linked to copper and nickel mining quantities and not produced as an independent mining resource. This will change with the need for cobalt-containing battery materials and will almost certainly introduce cost spikes and supply uncertainty. Two-thirds of the cobalt global supply mined in the Democratic Republic of Congo, much it via artisanal mining, a practice prone to child labor and other labor abuses. This societally unacceptable approach coupled with rule-of-law and political stability issues in central Africa introduce a further supply cost uncertainty into the NG-LiB supply chain. The US government has made it a priority to significantly reduce or eliminate cobalt in electric vehicles used and/or manufactured in the United States.

This talk will provide the context of the cobalt initiative at DOE with an overview of our automotive batteries R&D portfolio and will describe the major thrusts of the initiative emphasizing the programmatic rationales and topical example achievements from many of the projects.

Biography:
Andreas Fischer has been active in the field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion for more than 20 years. In 1996, he finished his doctoral studies with a thesis on “Investigations on the Technology of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells” in 1996 at the Technical University of Darmstadt / Germany. After that he joined BASF in Ludwigshafen / Germany. Early 2000 he spent three years in marketing at BASF and returned to R&D taking over the group leader position “Electrochemical Research”, where he started to work on materials for lithium ion batteries. Since 2011 he is Vice President “Research Battery Materials” at BASF.

In 2012 he became a member of the board of trustees of the DECHEMA Research Institute. Until 2014 he was board member and deputy chairman of the expert group “Electrochemistry” of the German Chemical Society. Since 2014 he is member of the board of INREP (Israel National Research Center for Electrochemical Propulsion) and since 2016 member of the advisory council “Battery Research Germany” of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

Abstract:

BASF's approach to improve cost performance of cathode materials for electromobility

The industry trend in layered oxide cathode materials for lithium ion batteries goes towards ever higher Nickel content to increase energy density. This approach helps to reduce cost on a system level and to lower dependence on critical metals like cobalt. Nickel, and especially manganese, are more abundant and more cost effective when compared to cobalt. Intense R&D efforts have led to substantial progress, and NCM as well as NCA materials from BASF offer high performance at Ni levels of 90% and above. Key to making such materials a feasible option is to tune the cathode material not only regarding bulk chemistry and morphology but also with respect to surface modification. Another approach to further reduce dependence on costly metals is to increase the Mn content, leading to so called Mn rich NCM cathode materials. BASF has developed such materials over the past years, pushing their performance beyond heretofore observed limits. A unique combinatorial approach of tuning bulk and surface properties while utilizing specifically optimized electrolyte additives and formulations has brought Mn rich NCM to an unprecedent performance level and closer towards commercialization. The focus of this presentation will be on BASF's progress on Mn rich cathode materials and how it pushes the limits of cost performance enabling affordable electromobility.

Biography:
Dominique Guyomard is the head of the “Electrochemical Energy Storage and Transformation Lab” (EEST) at the Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel at Nantes (France), about 45 scientists including 17 staff members. His team gathers activities on rechargeable batteries, on supercapacitors, on high temperature fuels cells and electrolysers, and on advanced spectroscopies and spectra simulations.

His main purpose is to bridge the gap between academic research and industrial developments in the field of energy storage, with innovative and comprehensive research on industrial key issues. His expertise deals with solid state electrochemistry, material science and surface science, applied to the fields of Li-ion, Li metal polymer, Li-S and Na batteries, in collaboration with several industrial companies. He received the 2007 IBA Research Award, the 2008 French Academy of Science Award for Science transfer to Industry, the 2010 ECS Battery Division Research Award, and the 2016 ECS Battery Division Technology Award. He is co-inventor of 34 patents and co-author of about 400 articles including 251 peer-reviewed papers.

Abstract:
Towards green and sustainable organic batteries for automotive applications

Innovation in the development of potentially greener electrochemical storage devices is imperative for many applications. In the field of electric transportation, car makers have strong interest to lower the environmental footprint of future electric cars because current battery chemistries use metal-based active materials causing heavy environmental burden. Organic batteries are very promising because they should be environmentally benign while displaying a more favorable prospective in term of life cycle analysis, as organic redox materials can be prepared from renewable resources via eco-efficient low cost processes, and can be easily recycled [1]. However, the synthesis of high-voltage lithiated materials is rather challenging, so no example of all-organic high-energy Li-ion cells currently exist.

In this communication, we report on novel crystallized organic positive electrode materials for the non-aqueous application of organic batteries. We describe the Mg(Li2)-p-DHT compound that is the first lithiated organic positive electrode material with an operating potential as high as that of LiFePO4 [2]. Based on this finding, full organic Li-ion cells with an output voltage of 2.5V and long cycle life have been achieved, thus making a big step forward the design of high energy green and sustainable organic batteries.

References
[1] P. Poizot, F. Dolhem, Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 2003 (2011).
[2] A. Jouhara, N. Dupré, A.C. Gaillot, D. Guyomard, F. Dolhem, P. Poizot, Nature Commun., 9, 4401 (2018)

Biography:
Andreas Hintennach is a chemist and medical doctor. He received his PhD in electrochemistry from the ETH Zurich and Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) in 2010. After a postdoc stay at MIT in the field of lithium-air and catalysis 2010-11 he joined the research department of Daimler AG where he serves as a senior manager and is heading the battery research and technology field. His present focus in the field of electrochemistry is fundamental research on next generation electrical energy storage and conversion materials and systems, sustainability and toxicology, as well as computational research with a focus on novel materials and chemistry. e. g. Quantum Computing.

Abstract:
From raw materials to high-voltage batteries: new materials and concepts for sustainable electric mobility

Ever since the development of lithium-ion batteries the spirit of invention has mainly lead to an evolution of existing materials. With the focus on olivine and Nickel- and cobalt based materials the energy densities, power densities and ageing mechanisms could be investigated over the years and support the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

With increasing numbers of cells being used in the world the need of a post Lithium-Ion technology emerges due to a limited availability of highly pristine nickel and cobalt and increasing need for recycling, environmental protection and overall energy efficiency. Nevertheless there is still an ongoing and very promising approach for e. g. novel stoichiometries of NMC materials, olivine materials, and nickel-rich materials with can significantly increase the energy density. But due to some limitation in the field of raw materials availability, accessibility, and sustainability, low-cobalt or cobalt-free materials are of very high interest, too. For example LMR (LNMO) can be an ideal candidate. Due to the very high reactivity and potential (i. e. 4.5 V) these materials require highly stable electrolytes.

Finally, lithium-sulphur can lead to a highly recyclable, environmentally friendly system. Having a silicon-based anode (> 85 % Si) included both volumetric and gravimetric energy density can mean an interesting alternative to metal-oxide based materials.

With the increased energy density, safety becomes a more and more important aspect in thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of these materials. This aspect can lead to the development of non-flammable electrolytes or solid state cells.

Biography:
1983                      Joined Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
2000                      Project Manager of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development, Central Research
                               Institute
2003                      Won Ceramic Society of Japan Prize
2004                      Won Japan Mining Industry Association Prize
2005                      Won Japan Nikkei Business Publications Prize
2006                      Won the Commendation for Science and Technology by the Ministry of
                               Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
2008 - 2012         Director, Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technology Development Group,
                               New Energy Technology Department, NEDO
2012 - 2018         Director General, Electricity Storage Technology Development Division,
                               Smart Community Department, NEDO
                               Project Maneger of the Research and Development Initiative for Scientific
                               Innovation of New Generation Batteries 2 (RISING2)
2018 -                    Director General, Electricity Storage Technology Development Division,
                               Advanced Battery and Hydrogen Technology Department, NEDO
                               Project Maneger of the Development of Fundamental Technologies for
                               All-Solid-State Battery Applied to Electric Vehicles (SOLiD-EV)

Abstract:
NEDO's R&D strategies of next-generation batteries

Since it was established in 1980, NEDO has become one of the largest public research and development management organization in Japan and has worked with the government to promote economic and industrial policies. In this role, NEDO undertakes technology development and demonstration activities to carry out two basic missions, addressing energy and global environmental problems and enhancing industrial technology. Regarding the first mission, NEDO has been supporting the energy and environmental fields for more than 30 years. Following the Great East Japan Earthquake, the promotion of renewable energy and energy conservation has become extremely important. Going forward, NEDO will continue to support technology development for achieving even higher efficiency and lower cost, with a primary goal of developing new technologies and ensuring that project results are introduced to the market. As for the second mission, it is extremely important in view of the difficult conditions Japan is currently facing. In order to put new technologies to practical use and commercialize them for their introduction to society, now more than ever there is an increasing need for open innovation. NEDO will continue to play a key role as a catalyst for collaboration between industry, academia, and government by promoting exchanges of knowledge and ideas between private sector companies, universities, and public research institutes in a coordinated manner.

NEDO covers a wide range of technology development fields such as new energy, energy conservation, innovative materials, IoT(Internet of Things), and robot technologies. As for the rechargeable batteries and energy storage technologies, NEDO has been promoting the R&D projects for more than 25 years. Since the importance of achieving high performance, high reliability, and cost reduction of batteries further increases for widespread adoption of plug-in electric vehicles, NEDO is strategically undertaking two R&D projects of next-generation battery technologies.

One of the two ongoing projects is the Development of Fundamental Technologies for All-Solid-State Lithium Ion Battery Applied to Electric Vehicles (SOLiD-EV), and it was started in 2018 and will continue until 2022. The objective of the project is to develop evaluation techniques of novel battery materials applied to all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using solid inorganic electrolytes. The goal of the projects is that the developed evaluation techniques will serve as a common benchmark index of the domestic battery industries. The project is led by the Consortium for Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Evaluation Center (LIBTEC) in partnership with twenty-three private corporations (covering the complete chain from battery material suppliers to battery manufacturers, and automakers), five public research institute, and ten universities.

The other ongoing project is the Research and Development Initiative for Scientific Innovation of New Generation Batteries 2 (RISING2) and it was started in 2016 and will continue until 2020. The objective of the project is to develop innovative batteries achieving both high energy density (more than 500Wh/kg) and high reliability, and to develop cutting-edge in-situ/in-operando analytical techniques in order to understand a wide range of electrochemical phenomena of the innovative batteries. The project is led by Kyoto University and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in partnership with ten private corporations (five automakers, four battery manufacturers, one institute), three public research institutes, and eighteen universities.

This presentation will offer a summary of NEDO’s approaches and achievements of the above projects.

Biography:
Dr. Joerg Huslage is heading the R&D partnering and strategy activities at the Volkswagen Center of Excellence for battery cells in Salzgitter. He is electrochemist and has been technology manager for several  years within the Volkswagen Group Research and Group Development for battery and fuel cells. He received his diploma degree (1992) and PhD (1995) from the University of Muenster in Germany. From 1993 to 1996 he worked on Li-Ion batteries in the group of Prof. Jürgen Besenhard at the Technical University of Graz/Austria. From 1996 to 2000 he got his expertise on fuel cell development at the Paul Scherrer Institute/Switzerland. In 2000 he started his work at Volkswagen with the development of High-Temperature PEM fuel cells. From 2002 he was group leader of the HT-PEM fuel cell stack development.

Biography:N. Imanishi is a professor of Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Japan. He studied industrial electrochemistry and received his Ph.D. from Kyoto University. He started his research professionally at 1990 in Mie University and after 22-year career as assistant and associate professor, he promoted to the present position. He focuses on functional materials and electrochemistry, especially energy conversion and storage materials, for instance, electrode materials for lithium batteries and fuel cells, and solid-state electrolytes for those batteries. His recent research interests include two topics: polymer lithium ion batteries and lithium-air batteries.

Abstract:
Lithium metal anode coated with crosslinked polymer membrane

Introduction of electric vehicles into the society is expected to reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The driving ranges per one charge are largely controlled by the amount of electric energy stored in the batteries. New battery systems are strongly demanded that have higher energy densities than conventional lithium ion batteries. Rechargeable batteries with lithium metal anode are the potential candidates to achieve this target. However, lithium metal has a lot of practical problems e.g., low coulombic efficiency, dendritic growth, risk of ignition, that must be overcome for its wider applications. In this study, crosslinked polymer layer was directly coated on the lithium metal surface, and the effect on electrodeposition/dissolution reaction of lithium metal in organic electrolyte solution was investigated.

Crosslinked polymer composed of poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMA) at various molecular ratios were used as the coating layer. A mixture of appropriate amount of PEGDA and PEGMA solution was directly cast on lithium metal sheet and then irradiated with ultraviolet light to obtain the polymer-coated lithium metal anode. Electrochemical lithium electrodeposition/dissolution reactions were examined using two-electrode test cell assembled with the polymer-coated lithium anode, copper cathode, and 1 mol dm-3 LiN(SO2F)2 in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as electrolyte. The charge-discharge measurements confirmed the better cycle performance for the crosslinked polymer-coated lithium anode than the uncoated ones. The effect of the polymer coating and the ratio of PEGDA/PEGMA will be discussed based on the electrochemical and structural characterizations.

Biography:
Jürgen Janek holds a chair for Physical Chemistry at Justus-Liebig University in Giessen (Germany) and is scientific director of BELLA, a joint lab of BASF SE and KIT in Karlsruhe/Germany. He received his doctoral degree in physical chemistry under supervision of Hermann Schmalzried and Alan B. Lidiard. He was visiting professor at Seoul National University, Tohuku University and Université d´Aix-Marseille, and got several awards for his scientific work. His research spans a wide range from fundamental transport studies in mixed conductors and at interfaces to in situ studies in electrochemical cells. Current key interests include all-solid state batteries, new solid electrolytes and solid electrolyte interfaces. He is particularly interested in kinetics at interfaces and in in situ techniques.

Abstract:
Solid electrolytes vs. liquid electrolytes in batteries – A deeper look inside

Biography:

Doctoral degree
2012 : Ph.D. in Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Title : Microstructural design of electrode materials for energy storage systems by using nanosheet processes
Supervisor : Prof. Masaru Miyayama, Applied Chemistry department, University of Tokyo, Japan

Current position
Northvolt AB
Title : Advanced Material Researcher
Research area : R&D for conventional Li ion Battery, and next generation Li ion Battery 

Previous positions
Bosch JapanTitle: Research scientist
Research area: Next generation energy storage systems for electrification (all solid state battery, and etc.) 

Abstract:
Current R&D status of Northvolt AB

Northvolt is building the next generation lithium-ion battery factory with a new concept focusing on scale, vertical integration and highly controlled manufacturing. The execution is fundamentally different compared to current battery production facilities. We are dedicated to creating a circular system, and have the highest ambitions for life cycle management. Our approach covers cradle to grave. Building the factory in Sweden, given its carbon free power base, will enable us to rely on fossil free and inexpensive energy.

I would like to share Northvolt's current status which is including our R&D road map, R&D facilities, and our R&D activities.

Biography:
Chris Johnson is currently a senior chemist and group leader at Argonne National Laboratory, specializing in the research & development of battery materials and battery systems with 27 years of experience. He is known worldwide for his development of state-of-art lithium-ion battery cathode materials. He holds a BS. Chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Northwestern University. He has published over 115 publications, and 25 issued US patents in the battery field. He has received the research award from the International Battery Association in 2006, and a R&D-100 award for the commercialization of lithium battery materials in 2009. He is Past-Chair of the Electrochemical Society Battery Division, and currently the International Battery Association (IBA) President. He is the 2018 recipient of the University of Chicago Argonne Distinguished Scientist Award, and is a Fellow of the Electrochemical Society.

Abstract:
Diagnosis of Li inventory and pre-lithiation methods for Si-containing Li-ion batteries

Because of their high-gravimetric capacities, use of Si-containing anodes in Li-ion batteries can lead to a big jump in energy densities. The control of lithium consumption, however is a big obstacle for these cells, and many strategies are emerging to address the problem of Li inventory. We search for solutions on the subject from two fronts. The first is to understand the lithium inventory via utilization of a quasi-RE/CE thick LiFePO4 in a Si-type full cell [1-2]. In this study we show the effectiveness of LiFePO4 as a diagnostic tool in order to assay the quantity of Li consumption in a full cell as marked by the percent loss of lithium per cycle via SEI growth and/or SEI consumption and re-formation. This approach allows the Li content to be followed during cycling without Li metal or layered oxide cathode complications (i.e. non-controlled voltage shifts). The second topic focuses on practical solutions to introduce high contents of Li into the cell in the easiest, most straightforward way. We take the approach of designing cathodes and utilizing cathode blends wherein sacrificial Li is introduced into the cell [3]. In these cases greater energy densities can be realized from higher retained cathode capacity, and cycle life is dramatically improved.

References
[1] Capacity fade in high energy silicon-graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, W. M. Dose, M. J. Piernas-Munoz, V. A. Maroni, S. E. Trask, I. Bloom and C. S. Johnson, Chemical Communications, (2018), 54, 3586-3589.
[2] Assessment of Li-Inventory in cycled Si-Graphite anodes using LiFePO4 as a diagnostic cathode, W. M. Dose, V. A. Maroni, M. J. Piernas-Munoz, S. E. Trask, I. Bloom, and C. S. Johnson, J. Electrochem. Soc., (2018), 165, A2389-A2396.
[3] Mitigating the initial capacity loss and improving the cycling stability of silicon monoxide using Li5FeO4, L. Zhang, W. M. Dose, A. D. Vu, C. S. Johnson, W. Lu,  J. Power Sources, (2018), 400, 549-555.

Biography:
Kisuk Kang Kisuk Kang is a professor of materials science and engineering at Seoul National University (SNU), where he received his B.Sc. He completed his Ph.D. and postdoctoral studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Since 2013, he has been a tenured professor at SNU. His research laboratory focuses on developing new materials for batteries and electrocatalysts using combined experiments and ab initio calculations. His published works in this field have been cited more than 21,000 times, and he was selected as Highly Cited Researchers in 2018 from Clarivate Analytics. He was a recipient of several awards such as Energy and Environmental Science Lectureship Award from Royal Society of Chemistry, United Kingdom (2012), Science Patriots Award, from Ministry of Science, Korea (2017), Scientist of the Month from Ministry of Science, Korea (2017), and was selected as 100 leaders in Technology by National Academy of Engineering of Korea (2017). He is now a director of Center for carborganic energy materials, and a director of Center of Samsung SDI-SNU rechargeable batteries. He is also serving as a Board of Directors of Materials Research Society and an associate editor of Journal of Materials Chemistry A in Royal Society of Chemistry.

Abstract:
Maintaining a high energy density of the lithium-rich layered oxides (LLO) and new lithium diffusion model for LLO

Lithium-rich layered oxides (LLOs) are considered promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high reversible capacity, which is attributed to the exploitation of the novel anionic redox in addition to the conventional cationic redox process. Cobalt-free layered lithium-rich nickel manganese oxides, Li[LixNiyMn1−x−y]O2, are one of the promising positive electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries because of their high energy density and low materials cost. However, substantial voltage decay is inevitable upon electrochemical cycling, which makes this class of materials less practical. It has been proposed that undesirable voltage decay is linked to irreversible structural rearrangement involving irreversible oxygen loss and cation migration. In the first part of my talk, we demonstrate that the voltage decay of the electrode is correlated to Mn4+/Mn3+ redox activation and subsequent cation disordering, which can be remarkably suppressed via simple compositional tuning to induce the formation of Ni3+ in the pristine material. By implementing our new strategy, the Mn4+/Mn3+ reduction is subdued by an alternative redox reaction involving the use of pristine Ni3+ as a redox buffer, which has been designed to be widened from Ni3+/Ni4+ to Ni2+/Ni4+, without compensation for the capacity in principle. Negligible change in the voltage profile of modified LLNMO is observed upon extended cycling, and manganese migration into the lithium layer is significantly suppressed.

In the second part of the talk, I will discuss about transition metal (TM) migration, which is now understood to be the critical factor triggering the anionic redox as well as the phase transition, although the origin is still under debate. A better understanding of the specific TM migration behavior and its effect during charge/discharge would thus enable further development of this class of materials. I will show that the unique TM migration during charge/discharge significantly alters the lithium diffusion mechanism/kinetics of LLO cathodes. I present clear evidence of the much more sluggish lithium diffusion occurring during discharge (lithiation) than during charge (de-lithiation), which contrasts with the traditional lithium diffusion model based on simple topotactic lithium intercalation/deintercalation in the layered framework. The reversible but asymmetric TM migration in the structure, which originates from the non-equivalent local environments around the TM during the charge and discharge processes, is shown to affect the lithium mobility. This correlation between TM migration and lithium mobility led us to propose a new lithium diffusion model for layered structures and suggests the importance of considering TM migration in designing new LLO cathode materials.

Biography:
Peter Lamp received his PhD in general physics from the Technical University of Munich in 1993 (PhD done at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich). Since 1994 he has held different positions in non-profit research organizations as well as industry; continuously working on applied research in the field of energy storage and conversion. Dr. Lamp joined BMW in 2001 as development engineer for fuel cell systems. From 2008 to 2012 he was responsible for product development of Li-Ion cells. Since 2012 he is responsible for research on next generation electrical energy storage systems at BMW. At present he is general manager for ‘Battery Cell Technology, Fuel Cell’.

Abstract:
Perspectives and challenges of next generation automotive Li-ion cells

Since the launch of the pioneering BMW i3 and i8 as well as the subsequent introduction of numerous xEV in the BMW standard platforms BMW has up to now sold about 500.000 xEV, putting BMW in a leading position regarding electric mobility.
Clearly, the battery technology is the key to realize the ambitious product portfolio and sales numbers. Thus, BMW has continuously improved its battery competence over the last decade. There are still considerable development efforts and innovations needed before new generations of batteries for automotive application will lead not only to the necessary performance but in particular to the necessary cost level allowing for sustainable and profitable business in the electric mobility sector.
In this overview presentation the BMW strategy on battery development will be explained. Based on the requirements deduced from the automotive application present development trends and status on both technologies Li-ion and all-solid-state batteries will be discussed. The potential and limits of present material concepts as well as open challenges will be addressed.

Biography:
Hong Li got the degree of bachelor degree in Lanzhou university in 1992, master-degree in Institute of Changchun Applied Chemistry, CAS in 1995 and Ph.D degree in Institute of Physics, CAS in 1999. He is currently a full professor in Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interest is high energy density lithium ion batteries, solid lithium batteries and failure analysis. He is the regional editor of Solid State Ionics and Ionics. He serves as the scientific committee member of MOST and MIIT in China, IMLB and ICESI in the world.

Abstract:
Overview of China's battery and EV activities

Advanced batteries have become key technologies for supporting the development of electrical vehicles, smart grid as well as renewable energy. Progresses of battery technologies rely heavily on deep fundamental researches and effective innovations on materials, cells, modules and systems. Currently, China is the leading country with a production capacity over 60% in the world. Chinese government has paid much attention on promoting R&D on advanced batteries since 2010, especially for EV application. In this talk, an overview of the R&D activities and targets on advanced batteries in China since 2015 will be introduced. Projects and progresses on advanced Li-ion batteries, solid-state batteries, Li-S, Li-air, dual-ion and Na-ion batteries will be summarized. Based on the current status and future demanding, a tentative roadmap of the battery development and national project on EV batteries within the next decade will be introduced.

Acknowledgement
Financial support from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No.2016YFB0100100) is appreciated.

Biography:
Dr. Wenjuan Liu Mattis received her Ph.D. degree in Material Science and Engineering Department at The Pennsylvania State University in 2010 and joined the Dow Energy Material Department at The Dow Chemical Company in Mar. 2010. At Dow, she was working on advanced battery technology development - research and development of novel cathodes, anodes, electrolytes, electrolyte additives of high energy and high power lithium-ion batteries for application in HEV, PHEV, EV, and consumer electronics. In Oct. 2013, she joined Microvast Inc. Currently, as the VP of R&D, she is leading the R&D efforts developing high energy electrode materials and advanced batteries, targeting safer, cheaper and higher performance energy storage devices, including but not limited to lithium ion batteries, for the applications in EV, HEV, PHEV, and EESS. She works with multiple businesses and core R&D to maximize the innovation pipeline for Microvast R&D function, and works on cross-department communication & coordination, raising and executing IP strategy of Microvast, and taking charge of all aspects of the global intellectual property portfolio.

Abstract:
High-Energy & Safe Battery Technology with Extreme Fast Charging Capability for Automotive Applications

The state-of-the-art high-energy battery cell technology (with an energy density of less than 200 Wh/kg) is capable of 2C charging, or fully charged in 30 minutes, with a minimum consequence on the battery cell. However, charging the battery cell with a higher rate generally leads to the shortening of battery life, and sometimes causes safety issues. The main challenge to increasing the fast charging capability is a limit to a) the anode electrode thickness to control Li plating and b) the lack of a sufficient conducting network for efficient lithium ion delivery into and out of the electrode materials. To address the limitations of the anode thickness, anode materials with improved porosity and Li transport are desirable, as are cathode materials with greater lithium diffusion as well as gravimetric and volumetric energy density.

Microvast has been developing an advanced high energy battery chemistry based on full gradient cathode (FCG) based on nickel, manganese and cobalt oxide system with target energy density of 240 wh/kg and 4C fast charge capability. The presentation will describe the system and show some fast charge result and safety performance of this novel high energy battery system.

 

 

Biography:
Professor Petr Novák, Fellow of the International Society of Electrochemistry, build up the Section “Electrochemical Energy Storage” of the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. A graduate of the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, he obtained his PhD in electrochemical engineering in 1984 and his habilitation in 1994. He has been working in the field of electrochemical energy storage (focusing on batteries, mainly lithium-based) since 1983, first at the J. Heyrovský Institute, Prague, later as Alexander von Humboldt-Fellow at the University of Bonn, and since 1991 at the Paul Scherrer Institute. He was awarded the Tajima Prize of the International Society of Electrochemistry and the Technology Award of the Battery Division of The Electrochemical Society, Inc. He was appointed as a full (W3) professor at the University of Karlsruhe in 2008 (rejected). Petr Novák was awarded the title of Professor of ETH Zurich in 2009.

Abstract:
Comparing performance, costs, and environmental impact of Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

Simon F. Schneider, Erik J. Berg, Christian Bauer, Petr Novák

In the field of electric mobility Li-ion batteries (LIBs) offer the most advanced energy storage technology because of their unmatched specific energy and reliable performance. Due to the potential criticality of lithium, Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are considered an emerging technology to eventually complement LIBs. Whereas it remains an open question whether NIB active materials will be competitive with their LIB counterparts in terms of cell voltage and specific charges, NIBs could be more attractive for applications that require high power, like in cars with hybrid technology. This is due to the larger size of Na+ compared to Li+, which favors enhanced electrolyte mass transport kinetics and faster charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In our study, we employed a Pseudo-two-Dimensional (P2D) physics-based battery cell model to project practical specific energies of current and possible future NIB cells subjected to varying discharge rates, from low to very high. The P2D model output was subsequently used to parameterize a bottom-up battery cell cost model and to perform life cycle assessment (LCA). These calculations were conducted for several (hypothetical) NIB cells represented by multiple sets of kinetic parameters and active material configurations. The NIB projections were benchmarked against model results for state-of-the-art LIB cells. Overall, our work helps to pinpoint key determinants governing the technical, economic, and environmental viability of NIB cells, thus providing a holistic guideline for decisions about possible investments into the development of industrially viable NIBs.

Biography:
Atsushi Ohma is a senior manager of research division at Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. He graduated from Waseda University in 1995 with B.D, and Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2010 and received PhD of mechanical control and system engineering. In the thesis, he studied oxygen reduction reaction mechanism with Nafion® film for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) by both electrochemical measurement of electrocatalyst and energy-based reactivity analysis using DFT calculation. He is also a visiting associate professor of Green Energy Conversion Science and Technology, University of Yamanashi from 2012.

He enrolled Toshiba Co., Ltd in 1995 and had developed PEMFC stack for stationary use for 7 years. Then he changed his jobs from Toshiba to Nissan in 2002 to research and develop PEMFC stack, membrane electrode assembly (MEA), and catalyst layers/electrocatalyst. Since 2016 he has also been in charge of fundamental research for advanced Li-ion battery materials, electrodes, and cells. The main focus of his research is performance and durability analysis of the electrodes and high-capacity materials (Si-containing anode, Ni-rich NCM, Sulfur cathode etc.) from both experimental and modeling aspects by coupling electrochemical reaction and mass transport phenomena, and mechanical expansion/contraction behavior.

Education
Ph.D. in Mechanical Eng., Tokyo Institute of Technology; Meguro-ku, Tokyo, March 2010.
B.D. in Mechanical Eng., Waseda University; Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, March 1995.

Profession Experience:
Research Division, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Manager, Battery and Fuel Cell fundamental research: 2010 – Present
Assistant Manager: 2008 – 2010
Engineer: 2002 – 2008

Toshiba IFC Co., Ltd.
Engineer: 2001– 2002

Technical Center, Toshiba Co., Ltd.
Engineer: 1995– 2001

Green Energy Conversion Science and Technology, University of Yamanashi
Visiting Associate Professor, 2012 – Present 

Expertise:
Fuel Cells, Battery
Electrochemistry, Thermodynamics, Chemical engineering, Mass and heat transfer, Material Science, Computational Science

Abstract:
Current status and challenges of high-capacity lithium ion battery research at Nissan

Atsushi Ohma, Akiyoshi Park, Hideyuki Komatsu, Naoki Ueda, Issei Ohtani, Ikuma Takahashi, Tomaru Ogawa, and Masaharu Hatano

Global warming and traffic accident are part of the critical social issues for sustainability. It is an important role for vehicle manufacturers to develop technologies to mitigate these issues. Nissan has been focusing on both electrification and intelligence technologies so far as a part of “Nissan Intelligent Mobility”. Regarding the social environmental issue, the emission of greenhouse gas needs to be reduced. Against the background, Nissan launched “Nissan LEAF” as a pure BEV in 2010 with 24kWh lithium-ion battery pack and systems. After that, we have been making efforts on the battery evolution for our future EVs to expand cruising range and durability, to improve quick chargeability and safety, and to finally reduce the cost. Then, we successfully launched a new model of “Nissan LEAF” in 2017, which can enable us 400 km cruising range at JC08 mode, with 40kWh battery pack [1]. Although the new “Nissan LEAF” is more user friendly especially in terms of the cruising range per one charge, there are technical challenges still remaining. One of the biggest challenges is to make them compatible to increase capacity and to improve durability of the battery.
In our recent research activity, we have been studying new active materials and electrodes. Si-containing anode materials are one of the promising items for high-capacity and cost-effective lithium ion battery for next generation EVs [2,3]. Ni-rich layered material and sulfur-containing material are attractive for future cathode in terms of higher electrode capacity [4-6]. On the other hand, solid-state-battery can be fascinating due to fast charging capability [7]. And sulfur-containing cathode composite can be remarkable if it is applied to solid-state-battery, because shuttle phenomenon can be negligible [8-11].
In this presentation, current status and technical challenges of high-capacity cathode will be introduced with our updated data and modeling results.

Acknowledgment
Part of this work was financially supported by RISING2 project of NEDO, Japan.

References
[1] www3.nissan.co.jp/en.html
[2] G. E. Blomgren, J. Elecchtrochem. Soc. 164 (1) (2017) A5019.
[3] N. Chiba et al., 3D01J, The 56th Battery Symposium in Japan (2015).
[4] W. Liu et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 4457 (2015).
[5] A. Manthiram et al., Energy Storage Materials 6, 125 (2017).
[6] I. Takahashi et al., Battery Symposium 3D13, Osaka, Japan (2018).
[7] www.nedo.go.jp/news/press/AA5_100968.html
[8] H. Nagata et al., Journal of Power Sources 264, 206 (2014).
[9] K. Suzuki et al., Electrochemistry 86 (1), 1 (2018).
[10] G. Zhou et al., PNAS January 31, 2017 114 (5) 840.
[11] S. Kim et al., Nature Comm. (2019) 10:1081.

Biography:
Teófilo Rojo received his PhD from the University of the Basque Country in 1981. He has spent various research periods at the Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry in Bordeaux (France), the King's College (University of London, UK), the University of Cambridge (UK) and the University of Campinas (Brazil). Since 1992 he has been Full Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU). He has supervised near 30 PhD thesis and more than 45 graduate and master thesis.
He is co-author of over 500 articles with more than 16000 citations and an h-index near 60. He has co-authored twelve book chapters and is co-editor of two books. He has also published several reviews requested by different international journals of high impact factor such as Energy & Environment Science (IF=30.067), Chemical Review. (IF=52.63), Acc. Chem. Res. (IF: 22.323) and Adv. Energy Mater. (IF =21.875), this last coedited by Prof. Rojo. He is co-author of eight patents related to magnetic and energy materials. Of special note is the PCT patent obtained about the first nanohybrid polymer electrolytes for lithium and sodium ion batteries.
Since 2010 he is the Scientific Director of the CIC energiGUNE and his research is focused on the study of materials for both lithium and beyond -lithium based batteries to improve the power and energy density both by exploring new compounds, optimized microstructures and through the study of the mechanisms that govern their performance.
He holds different positions in various scientific bodies in Spain being the chairman of the Solid-State Chemistry Group within the Spanish Royal Society since 2000 until 2010, and advisor for the Minister of Sciences and Education of the Spanish Government. He was awarded with the National Prize in Inorganic Chemistry by the Spanish Royal Society of Chemistry (RSEQ) in 2013. In February 2015, he was appointed as an Academic Member of the Royal Spanish Academy of Exacts, Physical and Natural Sciences. From 2014 to 2016 he was an executive board member of the EuCheMs Solid State and Materials Chemistry division and in 2016 he was appointed as a Member of the Working Party on Chemistry and Energy of EuCheMS (European Chemical Science), European Association for scientific discussion in all fields of chemistry related to energy applications.

Abstract:
Exploring sodium layered oxide cathodes: designing tailored materials

Interest in developing energy storage systems to meet a wide array of future challenges has driven research into a range of new battery technologies. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have proven to be particularly popular due to their attractive properties and broad range of potential applications. However, before SIBs take their place in the pantheon of battery technologies, there still remain challenges to overcome - perhaps the most significant of which is the ongoing development of optimal cathode materials.

Sodium Mn-rich layered oxides, i.e. NaxMn1-yMyO2 (y ≤ 0.33; M is one or more transition metals, such as Ni, Ti, Fe, etc.), have proven to be a promising family of SIB cathode materials with a low cost, highly tuneable, and environmentally friendly nature synergises well with the main advantages of SIBs.[1] Considerable research in this area, using a variety of conventional and specialised techniques, has led to an increased understanding of the nature and behaviour of these materials, and the key factors affecting their electrochemistry.[1–4]

Through this, principles have been determined governing the stoichiometric selection for tailored performances. For example, the propensity for Mn-rich materials to exhibit degradation due to structural strain resulting from Jahn-Teller distortion might be countered by introducing elements to stabilise the structure (e.g. Mg, Ti, Al, etc.), while Ni doping might increase the average voltage and power density and Fe doping the overall cathode performance. This understanding has enabled the rapid investigation of not only suitable elements (selected with careful attention to electrochemical performance, cost, scarcity, etc.) but also appropriate degrees of doping and substitution.

In this presentation, we will highlight some of the most significant Mn-rich materials and their properties, as well as examining and explaining the key parameters and factors which determine their performance. We will explain how this understanding has been used to develop a rational design approach, before summarising the trends in this area and areas of future exploitation.

References
[1] N. Ortiz-Vitoriano, N. E. Drewett, E. Gonzalo and T. Rojo, Energy Environ. Sci., 2017, 10, 1051–1074.
[2] N. A. Katcho, J. Carrasco, D. Saurel, E. Gonzalo, M. Han, F. Aguesse and T. Rojo, Adv. Energy Mater., 2016, 1601477.
[3] E. Gonzalo, N. Ortiz-Vitoriano, N. E. Drewett, B. Acebedo, J. M. López del Amo, F. J. Bonilla and T. Rojo, J. Power Sources, 2018, 401, 117–125.
[4] M. Bianchini, E. Gonzalo, N. E. Drewett, N. Ortiz-Vitoriano, J. M. López Del Amo, F. J. Bonilla, B. Acebedo and T. Rojo, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2018, 6.

Biography:
BSc from Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University in 1989 M. Sc. in 1991 and Dr. Eng. in 1996 from Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University Joining Osaka National Research Institute (present AIST) as a researcher in 1991 Chief Senior Research Scientist in 2013 Group leader in R&D Initiative for Scientific Innovation of New Generation Battery (RISING) up to the end of March 2016 and is still working as a group leader in RISING2.

Abstract:
From Intercalation/Insertion to Conversion Mechanism; Efforts for Increasing Energy

Author’s group has developed the technique to increase energy of positive electrode for LIB, by surface modification and analogue of Li-excess layered materials. The latter seems closely related to the conversion mechanism. Then we focus on metal polysulfides such as TiS4 and Li5FeS8 with specific capacity of more than 700 mAh/g by an intermediate mechanism between insertion and conversion. FeF3 related positive electrodes show maximum energy density as closed system, and are operated by full conversion reaction to 3LiF + Fe for this purpose. This is more challenging and several technical barriers should be cleared. We hope to understand how to balance the energy density and other important properties through the materials we developed.

Biography:
Julija Sakovica is a Policy Officer in the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, working on development of research and innovation policies and coordination of research and innovation activities. She is part of a transport team dealing with the future of surface transport, namely in the areas of electromobility, batteries and connected and automated transport.
She holds a degree in Management Science as well as in Environmental Science, and has a strong personal interest in sustainable development.

Biography:
Dr. Peter Schroth is currently Head of Division “Materials Innovations, Batteries; HZG, KIT” in the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

Dr. Schroth graduated in physics at the University of Aachen (RWTH) in 1997. He then joined the Research Center Jülich to work on biosensors. He received his PhD in 2000 from the University of Aachen. After that he was appointed Personal Assistant to the Board of Directors at the Research Center Jülich, covering the topics “Basic physical research and information technology”. In 2004, he joined the BMBF, where he held several positions in the divisions for “Basic Scientific Research” and “Electromobility” and as Senior Advisor to the State Secretary, before being appointed to his current position in August 2015.

Biography:
Academic Education and Degrees
1987 – 1993 Studium “Allgemeiner Maschinenbau” an der TH Darmstadt
1993 – 1998 Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut „Verbrennungskraftmaschinen“ der TU Darmstadt (Prof. Hohenberg)
1999 Promotion “Über die Stickoxidreduzierung an Nutzfahrzeug-Direkteinspritz-Dieselmotoren im stationären und dynamischen Motorbetrieb“
1998 – 2011 Verschiedene Positionen im Geschäftsbereich „Autoabgaskatalysatoren“ der Umicore AG (frühere Degussa)

Present Professional Position
Seit 05.2011 Manager Applied Technology Europe; Geschäftsbereich „Rechargeable Battery Materials“

Abstract:
Cathode material development enabling mass-market xEV’s: an Umicore perspective

Starting with material supply to the Li-ion industry in 1990, Umicore is today one of the leading producers of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a focus on Lithium cobalt dioxide (LCO) and mixed metal oxides (NMC). NMC covers various applications from portables (18650, prismatic and pouch type cells) up to stationary and automotive applications (large format cells). The two main development directions over the last years for NMC materials have consolidated around Nickel rich materials and stable high-voltage NMC materials. As a trend, there is great interest in Nickel rich materials in the market, but this comes at a cost. The impact on the cell safety due to the high nickel content, increased dependency on nickel, nickel price stability and finally cycle life stability, which is still far away from today’s low and medium Nickel technologies, have delayed market entry. Comparatively challenging is the development of high-voltage stable materials. Operating a cell at cut-off voltages significantly higher than today’s solutions results in higher stress to the cathode material. Therefore, the stabilization of the material to achieve sufficient cycle life duration at the increased cut-off voltages is one main development topic. Umicore has developed various NMC grades to deal with these challenges.

This talk will report on results of the material development of medium nickel material operated at high cut-off voltages in comparison to high nickel cathode material with respect to resulting energy densities, material cost evolution as well as on material safety.

The challenges to the industry require an investment pace which can only be handled by financially strong companies. The long-term supply challenge can only be met via sustainable sourcing and recycling. Umicore was the first company worldwide to obtain independent third party verification for this Cobalt sourcing framework.

Biography:
Venkat Srinivasan is a Senior Scientist at Argonne National Laboratory (LBNL), the Director of the Argonne Collaborative Center for Energy Storage Science (ACCESS) and Deputy Director of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR, the battery “Hub”). His research interest is in developing next-generation batteries for use in vehicle and stationary applications.  Dr. Srinivasan and his research group develop continuum-based models for battery materials and combine them with experimental characterization to help design new materials, electrodes, and devices. Prior to joining Argonne National Lab, Dr. Srinivasan was a scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, where he served, at various times, as the technical manager of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, as the acting director of the BATT program, as department head of the Energy Storage and Distributed Resources (ESDR) department, and as the interim director of the ESDR Division.

Abstract:
Designing interfaces in solid state batteries to minimize chemo-mechanical failure

Solid state batteries have become a popular topic of research in the past few years, driven by recent discoveries of solid ion conductors with high ionic conductivity.  With this the old problems of dendrite growth and the new problems related to interface delamination between the cathode and the solid electrolyte have become a focus of the research. 

Over the past several years, we have been developing mathematical methods that combine electrochemical effects (kinetics, mass transfer and ohmic) with mechanical interactions (elastic deformation, plastic deformation, and fracture) to understanding the role of material properties and operating conditions on the chemo-mechanics at the interface of both Li-metal anode and the oxide cathode.  These models are providing deep insights into the reasons for dendrite formation in soft and hard materials, the cause for interface delamination at the cathode/electrolyte interface, and the ways to modify the interface to prevent these issues. 

In this talk we will summarize the research efforts around Li metal and focus on ways to prevent dendrites in ceramic materials. In addition, our new effort on cathode/solid electrolyte interfaces will be summarized and a deeper understanding on the causes for delamination and its impact will be provided.

Biography:
Robert Stanek studied Business Management and Production Technology at the University of Stuttgart. He joined P3 in 2012 as an automotive consultant and worked before for major Tier1s and OEMs in the Technical Sales and Controlling departments. Since 2017 Robert is Partner at P3 and responsible for e-mobility team with focus on battery systems, electric powertrains and cost management. The current P3 e-mobility consulting, testing and engineering team covers more than 150 engineers and consultants working globally on the latest charging and powertrain technologies from early concept definition up to roll-out to the markets. The team’s projects encompass among other things technology and cost analysis of battery systems down to single chemical elements, technical benchmarking of electric powertrain components (e.g. motors, power electronics, gear boxes, thermal management) and charging technologies (intelligent wall-boxes up to ultra-fast charging systems), as well as strategic analysis in the field of electric mobility for OEMs, Tier supplier and Equipment Manufacturer in Asia, USA and Europe. Using this broad and deep technology expertise the team is capable to conduct expert assessments in the field of product cost optimization and technical due diligence projects for M&A strategies. Beside these projects, P3 and Robert are working intensively on the opportunity and option to establish a strong European battery manufacturing industry by enabling a strong industry network from universities up to machine equipment suppliers and the heavy mining industry.

Abstract:
Large Scale Cell Manufacturing in Europe - Chances and Risks for Integrated Supply Chains and Success Factors for New Entrants in the Automotive Battery Cell Industry

Driven by CO2 Emission regulations on the major automotive markets in China, the U.S. and Europe automotive OEMs are obliged to introduce CO2 emission free vehicles into their product portfolios. The decreasing market share of diesel vehicles and the introduction of the WLTP test cycle have put vehicle manufacturers in Europe under even more pressure to change their propulsion system portfolios. CO2 compliant fleets must be introduced to prevent financial penalties and image losses.

The solution seems to be the introduction of electric vehicle platforms starting after 2019 as announced by many European and international OEMs. One of the targets of these platform strategies is to benefit from economies of scale for the component costs of the electric powertrain and to in consequence achieve competitive prices for the new electric vehicles. The battery systems and the battery cells constitute the major cost share of the electric powertrain (up to 40% for medium range vehicles) and thus play a particular role within the sourcing and vehicle price definition strategy.

Currently the supply market of lithium-ion battery cells is dominated by South Korean, Chinese  and Japanese players as these introduced this technology to the market. These players used to supply earlier low volume xEV (electric vehicle) projects with lithium-ion cells from their domestic production locations. With the upcoming volume scale up for electric vehicles in Europe driven by CO2 regulations these players have built dedicated production locations in (Eastern) Europe to follow the necessary supply chain requirements of vehicle manufacturers. Most of the required sub-components and raw materials (e.g. nickel, cobalt, lithium and graphite) for these new production locations will initially be sourced from domestic and established supply chains in Asia. This is as well caused due to the lithium-ion technology is very sensitive towards changes of the applied materials and components for the manufacturing process. Nevertheless full integrated value chains show great potential for cost effective manufacturing setups and value chains and are targeted heavily by current key players as CATL, LG Chem, Samsung SDI and Northvolt. 

The topic of this presentation will consequently be to discuss the chances and risks for localized European players and industry segments to enter these supply chains due to e.g. missing infrastructure and local production facilities of the established competitors as well as open technology fields and highlight the success factors identified so far in the industry and show P3"s view on success factors and road blocks for new entrants in the battery cell manufacturing business to participate and compete with the dominant market players. In this context the depth of vertical integration into the value chain of battery cell production will be most of interest as it defines the amount of potential chances and risks.

Biography:
Prof. Andy (Xueliang) Sun is a Full Professor and senior Canada Research Chair (Tier I) for the development of Advanced Materials for clean energy, at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. Dr. Sun received his Ph.D degree in Materials Chemistry at the University of Manchester, UK, in 1999.

Dr. Sun’s research is focused on advanced materials for solid-state batteries, interface design by ALD/MLD and fuel cells. Dr. Sun published over 390 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He has also been selected as Highly Cited Researcher by Thomson Reuters/Clarivate Analytics in 2018. He also serves as an Editor-in-Chief of “Electrochemical Energy Review” under Spring-Nature. Dr. Sun received various awards such as Fellow of Royal Society of Canada (2016), Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering (2016), Award for Research Excellence in Materials Chemistry Winner from Canada Chemistry Society (2018) and Western Hellmuch Prize for Achievement in Research (2019). Dr. Sun is a Chairman of our Board Committee in the International Academy of Electrochemical Energy Science (IAOEES).

Abstract:
All-Solid-State Batteries: from Interfacial Design to Electrode Materials

The interfacial issues between solid-state electrolytes and electrodes (both cathode and anode) have a significant impact on the stability and lifetime of solid-state lithium batteries (SSLBs). An artificial, uniform and ultrathin interfacial layer is critical to address these challenges. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are unique coating techniques that can realize excellent coverage and conformal deposition with precisely controllable at the nanoscale level due to its self-limiting nature, which are ideal for addressing the challenges of interface in SSLBs [1]. In addition, design of SEI in SSLBs is very important for obtaining high performance of SSLBs.

In this talk, we will report to addresses the interfacial challenges in SSLBs via two strategies: (i) develop ALD/MLD to rationally design novel coatings for sulfide-based interface design; and (ii) SEI design of solid-state Li-Se batteries [2,3].

References
[1] Y. Zhao, X. Sun, Addressing Interfacial Issues in Liquid-based and Solid-State Batteries by Atomic and Molecular Layer Deposition. Joule. 2018, 2, 1-22.
[2] X. Li, X. Sun, et al., High-performance all-solid-state Li–Se batteries induced by sulfide electrolytes, Energy Environ. Sci., 2018, DOI: 10.1039/C8EE01621F.
[3] X. Li, X. Sun, et al., High-Performance Li-SeSx All-Solid-State Lithium Battery, Adv. Mater, 2019, 1808100.

Biography:
Norio Takami was born in 1959 in Japan. He received his PhD in 1988 from Tokyo University of Science. He has been working on development of materials and technologies for advanced batteries at Research & Development Center in Toshiba Corporation since 1988. In 1995, he developed highly graphitized carbon fiber and commercialized high-capacity Li-ion batteries using the carbon fiber anode for portable electronic devices in 1994. He has studied electrochemical kinetics of lithium insertion and safety of titanium-based oxides such as Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), TiO2(B), and TiNb2O7 for alternative anodes to graphite since 2000 and firstly developed high-power LTO anode-based batteries in 2005. His studies have contributed the commercialization and mass production of the high-power LTO battery “SCiBTM” for automotive applications by Toshiba Corporation since 2008. He is the recipient of Technology Award “Tanahashi Award” of the Electrochemical Society of Japan in 2014 and “Kato Memorial Award” in 2017 for important contributions to technologies for large-size lithium-ion batteries with high-power and long-life. He is now a chief fellow of Research & Development Center.

Abstract:
Development of Lithium-Ion Batter
ies Using TiNb2O7 Anodes for Automotive Applications

Lithium-ion batteries for automotive applications such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have required high-energy, high-power, fast-charging, long-life, low-temperature performance, and safety. In particular, fast-charging performance of a few minutes has been strongly required for enhancing the convenience of EVs as the energy density increases. Long-life of batteries is also required for reduction of the total cost for long-term using EV applications such as bus, truck, taxi, and shared cars and saving the resources. Therefore, we have developed TiNb2O7 (TNO) as an alternative high-capacity anode material to LTO. This paper reports the technologies and performance for lithium-ion batteries using the TNO anodes for automotive applications. Large-sized TNO/LiN1-a-bCoaMnbO2 (NCM) batteries using high-density TNO anode with micro-size spherical TNO secondary particles with carbon coating were fabricated in order to demonstrate the practical battery performance, which exhibited high energy-density, high power, fast-charging, and long cycle-life for EV applications such as bus, truck, taxi, and shared cars.

Biography:
Pierre Tran-Van is a chemistry engineer (Chimie Paristech school, 1996) and PhD in materials science (Versailles University, 2000, funded by Corning). He was assistant professor at Versailles university and witnessed the new spark in electric vehicle interest whilst creating and coordinating a Master course on photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries. He joined Renault in 2011 in the research division and is manager of Battery Innovation group since 2016. 

Abstract:
Battery research from Renault perspective

As a car maker committed to delivering electric vehicles (EV) to the mass market, the battery research team is pursuing different paths to clarify the technological potential of several chemistry candidates, as well as getting more understanding in mature Li-ion field.

After a brief reminder of engineering improvements brought to our flagship Zoe, the requirements of battery systems will be discussed from the material assessment perspective : in spite of the now long history of battery research and worldwide industrial effort in deploying electrified vehicles, it seems there is still some gap between OEM expectations and material performance advocated at laboratory level.

However, the harsh requirements of EV should not preclude exploratory research in the effort to uncover new candidates and some examples will be presented, both from Li-ion territory and the rather hot topic of all-solid-state-battery field.

Biography:
Dr. Alberto Varzi studied Chemistry of Materials at University of Bologna (Italy) and graduated in 2008. He continued his education in Germany and received a PhD in 2013 from the Ulm University and the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW). After a postdoctoral period at MEET battery research centre – University of Muenster, he is now a senior scientist at the Helmholtz-Institute Ulm (HIU) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT). His research interests span from lithium-based systems (lithium-ion and all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries) to electrochemical double layer capacitors.

Abstract:
Bulk-type all-solid-state batteries with sulfidic electrolytes – from materials selection to electrode processing

All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) promise increased energy densities by enabling the safe use of lithium metal anode. [1] Owing to their good ionic conductivity at room temperature, high ductility and low density, sulfidic electrolytes are among the most attractive candidates for high-energy ASSBs. [2] Herewith, we report two different, but potentially complementary, approaches for the development of bulk-type ASSBs based on sulfidic solid electrolytes.

Firstly, we discuss the importance of materials selection to achieve high active material utilization with practical electrode loadings. As an example, the Li-S system is chosen for its particularly challenging, sluggish, cathode kinetics. [3] We demonstrate how composite cathodes incorporating transition metal sulphides such as, e.g., FeS2 and CuS, can improve sulphur utilization and areal capacity. [4] High mass loading (5 mg cm-2 of active material equivalent to 22 mg cm-2 of total cathode mass) cells using composite CuS-Sulfur electrodes deliver capacities as high as 1600 mAh g-1(CuS+S) and 7 mAh cm-2 at 20 °C. Most interestingly, the higher density of CuS also leads to larger volumetric capacities, up to 4300 mAh cm-3(CuS+S), thus enabling an energy density gain up to 18% with respect to a conventional Carbon-Sulfur cathode.

For a successful commercialization of ASSBs, an easily scalable production method is also needed. [5] Here we demonstrate a tape casting procedure which easily allows to process a slurry-based composite cathode by using an inert binder, conductive carbon (VGCF), β-Li3PS4 and Li[Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2]O2. [6] The composite cathode is contacted with a β-Li3PS4 membrane by pressing at room temperature. A two-electrolyte layer cell set-up, including the inorganic solid electrolyte, β-Li3PS4 membrane, and an additional PEO-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) layer to protect the lithium metal, was developed. For optimizing the slurry preparation, different grinding methods were used: dry, wet, manual and automatic grinding. Besides slurry processing, also the type of current collector is found to impact the electrochemical cycling performance.

Acknowledgments:
The authors would like to thank the Samsung Research Institute Japan and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FELIZIA, grant agreement no. 03XP0026F) for funding this work.

References:
[1] J. Janek, W. G. Zeier, Nat. energy 2016, 1, 1–4.
[2] M. Keller, A. Varzi, S. Passerini, J. Power Sources 2018, 392, 206-225
[3] A. Manthiram, Y. Fu, S-H Chung, C. Zu, Y-S Su, Chemical Reviews, 2014. 114(23): p. 11751-11787.
[4] U. Ulissi, S. Ito, S.M. Hosseini, A. Varzi, Y. Aihara, S. Passerini, Advanced Energy Materials, 2018: p. 1801462.
[5] J. Schnell, T. Günther, T. Knoche, C. Vieider, L. Köhler, A. Just, M. Keller, S. Passerini, G. Reinhart, J. Power Sources, 2018, 382, 160-175.
[6] T. Ates, M. Keller, J. Kulisch, T. Adermann, S. Passerini, Energy Storage Mater. 2019, 17, 204–210.

 

 

Biography:
Mark Verbrugge started his GM career in 1986 with the GM Research Labs after receiving his doctorate in Chemical Engineering from the College of Chemistry at the University of California (Berkeley).   In 1996, Mark was awarded a Sloan Fellowship to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received an MBA. 

Mark directs the Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory at GM R&D and has published and patented in topic areas associated with electroanalytical methods, polymer electrolytes, advanced batteries and supercapacitors, fuel cells, high-temperature air-to-fuel-ratio sensors, compound semiconductors, surface coatings, and structural materials.

Mark is a Board Member of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC, is the 2017 Chairperson for the United States Advanced Battery Consortium LLC, and is an adjunct professor for the Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada.    

Mark’s research efforts resulted in his receiving the Norman Hackerman Young Author Award and the Energy Technology Award from the Electrochemical Society as well as GM internal awards including the John M. Campbell Award for research accomplishments, twice the Charles L. McCuen Award for inventions substantially influencing GM products, and twice the Boss Kettering Award, the highest technical award given by GM.  Mark received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the United States Council for Automotive Research, and an R&D 100 Award in 2017.  Mark is a Fellow of the Electrochemical Society, and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Abstract
Key aspects associated with the charging of lithium ion batteries

Mark W. Verbrugge, Daniel R. Baker

After a brief update on GM’s electrification initiatives, we overview GM’s efforts towards creating an efficient and effective BEV (battery electric vehicle) charging infrastructure in North America.  Following this, we examine (a) the utility of fast charging and (b) the modeling of cell overcharge.  For the modeling work, we add two new theoretical developments to published models to address Li plating.  First, the existing models are not well-posed in terms of handling the Li deposition and dissolution electrochemical reactions, and we demonstrate how to rectify this issue.  Second, the plated Li can interact directly with vacant sites in the graphite, which has not been treated in the literature, and which impacts the system response.

Biography:
Dr. Eric D Wachsman is Director of the Maryland Energy Innovation Institute, and Crentz Centennial Chair in Energy Research at the University of Maryland. He is Vice President of The Electrochemical Society (ECS), a Fellow of both ECS and the American Ceramic Society, World Academy of Ceramics member, Editor-in-Chief of Ionics, and on the Editorial Board of Scientific Reports, Energy Systems, and Energy Technology and a member of the American Chemical Society, the International Society for Solid State Ionics, and the Materials Research Society. His research is focused on solid ion-conducting materials and electrocatalysts, and includes the development of solid oxide fuel cells, solid-state batteries, ion-transport membrane reactors, and solid-state gas sensors. He has more than 260 publications and 17 patents on ionic and electronic conducting materials and device performance, and to date three companies have been founded based on these technologies.

Abstract:
Beyond Dendrites, Cycling Li-Metal Across Garnet at High Current Densities

Solid-state Li-batteries (SSLiBs) have the potential to be a transformational and intrinsically safe energy storage solution. However, their progress has been limited by high solid-solid interfacial impedance and numerous reports of Li-dendrites and a corresponding “critical current density”. By first modifying the garnet surface to enable Li-metal to wet it and then fabricating garnet-electrolytes into tailored tri-layer microstructures to form electrode supported dense thin-film (~10μm) solid-state electrolytes we have been able to overcome these limitations. The microstrucurally tailored porous garnet scaffold support increases electrode/electrolyte interfacial area, overcoming the high impedance typical of planar geometry SSLiBs resulting in an area specific resistance (ASR) of only ~2 to 7 Ωcm-2 at room temperature. The unique garnet scaffold/electrolyte/scaffold structure further allows for charge/discharge of the Li-metal anode and cathode scaffolds by pore-filling, thus providing high depth of discharge ability without mechanical cycling fatigue seen with typical electrodes. Moreover, these scalable multilayer ceramic fabrication techniques, without need for dry rooms or vacuum equipment, provide for dramatically reduced manufacturing cost.

The fabrication of supported dense thin-film garnet electrolytes, their ability to cycle Li-metal at high current densities with no dendrite formation, and results for Li-metal anode/garnet-electrolyte based batteries with a number of different cathode chemistries will be presented.

Biography:
Dr. Thomas Waldmann studied chemistry at Ulm University and graduated in 2007. He received his phd in the field of surface chemistry in 2012. In 2011, he joined the ECM group at Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) in Ulm, Germany. He currently is team leader of the Post-Mortem and aging mechanisms group.

His research interest focusses on degradation mechanisms and life-time extension of Lithium-ion cells, interaction of aging mechanisms and safety, as well as on method development.

Abstract:
Lithium Plating as Side Reaction in Lithium Ion Batteries

Thomas Waldmann, Christin Hogrefe, Karsten Richter, Jason B. Quinn, Michael Kasper, Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens

Li-ion cells have to be improved regarding their life-time and energy density, while maintaining a high safety level. Deposition of Li metal on graphite electrodes is a prominent mechanism which can lead to fast degradation of cell capacity and safety. Accelerated rate calorimetry (ARC) tests of aged cells suggest that Li deposition can lead to thermal runaway not only by internal short circuits but also by exothermic reactions. Therefore, ways must be found to avoid Li deposition.

This talk gives on overview of our research on Li deposition in the last years with the aim to characterize and avoid Li deposition. Different levels were investigated, including model experiments with electrodes and Li metal, lab cells with reference electrode, and commercial cells. A new method developed in our group (GD-OES) allows measuring the Li distribution in graphite electrodes with Li deposition. Full cells with reference electrode allow detection of Li deposition which is thermodynamically favored for negative electrode potentials vs. Li/Li+. The critical combinations of charging parameters are measured for commercial 16Ah cells and nine types of cylindrical cells, revealing an influence of the negative electrode coating thickness. Additionally, chemical intercalation of Li into graphite electrodes can lead to partial capacity recovery. Model experiments with Li metal on graphite electrodes shed some light on this mechanism.

Biography:
Stan Whittingham is a SUNY distinguished professor of chemistry and materials science and engineering at SUNY Binghamton. He received his BA and D Phil degrees in chemistry from Oxford University. He has been active in Li-batteries since 1971 when he won the Young Author Award of the Electrochemical Society for his work on the solid electrolyte beta-alumina. In 1972, he discovered the role of intercalation in battery reactions, which resulted in the first commercial lithium rechargeable batteries that were built by Exxon. In 1988 he returned to academia at SUNY Binghamton to initiate a program in materials chemistry. He was awarded a JSPS Fellowship in the Physics Department of the University of Tokyo in 1993. In 2004 he received the Battery Division Research Award. He is presently Director of the NECCES EFRC based at Binghamton. In 2012 he received the Yeager Award of the International Battery Association for his lifetime contributions to battery research; in 2015 he received the Lifetime Contributions to Battery Technology award from NAATBaaT, in 2017 the Senior Research Award from Solid State Ionics, and in 2018 was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering and received the Turnbull Award from MRS. He is a Fellow of both the Electrochemical Society and the Materials Research Society. He is Vice-Chair, Board of Directors of the New York Battery and Energy Storage Technology Consortium (NYBEST).

Abstract:
What are the Ultimate Limitations of Intercalation-Based Cathodes for Lithium (or Sodium) Batteries?

M. Stanley Whittingham, Hui Zhou and Carrie Siu
Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY, USA

Intercalation reactions have been the basis of all rechargeable lithium batteries since their inception 50 years ago. However, commercial cells attain only 25% of their theoretical energy densities (volumetric or gravimetric). The dominant NMCA cathodes can now attain over 200 Wh/kg commercially at the cell level, and the Battery500 consortium [1] has attained around 350 Wh/kg in full cells, out of a theoretical 1000 Wh/kg. The challenges to achieving higher levels are many, but can be assigned to two types, those associated with the material itself and those associated with the “dead-weight” of the cell components. These are inter-related. For example, if the ionic and electronic conductivity in the cathode material could be improved, then much thicker cathodes could be used. Using say 30 mm thick cathode materials would allow the elimination of half of the separators and current collectors. However, in the NMCA materials the lithium in-diffusion coefficient drops dramatically for x>0.7 in LiMO2 [2], almost irrespective of the M content. This results in a 10-15% capacity loss on the first cycle. Increasing the temperature of the cell can eliminate almost all of this loss, indicating that it is kinetic in origin. The carbon-based anode is another critical component that must be improved; it is volume-intensive and too heavy. The possible silicon replacement is proving problematic, so emphasis is shifting back to lithium metal.

An alternate approach is to use an intercalation system, in which a two-electron process is feasible. This would eliminate one half of the transition metal content. Our NECCES team has achieved theoretical capacity for the Li2VOPO4 material [3], showing the ability of a crystalline lattice to withstand multiple intercalation and removal of two cations. Sodium can also reversibly intercalate two ions into such structures.

This work is supported by the US Dept. of Energy through the NECCES EFRC and the Battery500 consortium.

References:
[1] C. Niu et al, J. Liu et al, both in Nature Energy (2019).
[2] Z. Li et al, J. Power Sources, 268, 106 (2014).
[3] C. Siu et al, Chem. Commun., 54, 7802 (2018).

Biography:
Martin Winter currently holds a professorship for “Materials Science, Energy and Electrochemistry” at the Institute of Physical Chemistry at Muenster University, Germany. The full professorship developed from an endowed professorship funded by the companies Volkswagen, Evonik Industries and Chemetall (today: Albemarle). He is a Director of the MEET Battery Research Center at Muenster University and of the Helmholtz-Institute Muenster (HI MS) “Ionics in Energy Storage”, a branch of Forschungszentrum Jülich.

Martin Winter is the spokesperson of German Battery Research, and present speaker of the National Project Alliance “Batterie2020”. He holds several president and chairmen positions in scientific societies and is the recipient of 50 awards and recognitions.

Abstract:
Magnesium and Lithium Metal Anodes: Future Battery Technologies Side-by-Side?

Georg Bieker1, Martin Kolek1, Verena Küpers1, Aleksei Kolesnikov1, Johannes Betz1, Peter Maria Bieker1,2, Marian Stan1, Martin Winter1,3

1 MEET Battery Research Center, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 46 48149 Münster, Germany
2 Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 28-30 48149 Münster, Germany
3
Helmholtz-Institute Münster (HI MS), IEK-12, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Correnstrasse 46, 48149 Münster, Germany

The lithium ion technology (LIB) represents the most prominent battery technology that critically re-shaped the electronic and electric vehicle market and will continue to be in the focus for decades. Its limitations in specific energy (Wh kg−1) and energy density (Wh L−1) due to use of the classical intercalation chemistry drives increasing interest in alternative concepts.[1] Battery technologies with metal anodes such as Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn and Al are currently considered as potential alternative technologies able to provide a high energy density technology. Li and Mg metal anodes do find particular attention.[2,3]

Comparing these both metals by intrinsic physical properties, the high standard reduction potentials of Li (−3.04 V vs. SHE) and Mg (−2.36 V vs. SHE), high theoretical specific (Li: 3862 mAh g−1; Mg: 2205 mAh g−1), and volumetric capacities (Li: 2046 mAh cm−3; Mg: 3837 mAh cm−3), highlight them as promising high energy materials. Nevertheless, lithium is prone to safety risks as high surface area lithium (HSAL) evolution can cause short circuits, fires, explosions. Many efforts have been conducted to direct, control, analyze and understand lithium electrodeposition phenomena. Electrode and interface designs made the lithium metal anode more predictable and even a choice for electric vehicles (Bolloré Bluecar). But, concerns for price evolution and abundancy made Mg a rising star in current research. Furthermore, its high melting point of 650 °C and strongly lowered reaction towards moisture promotes Mg metal anodes research. Mg-based chemistries, nonetheless, suffer from limited electrolyte and cathode availability.

In this perspective, the potential of the two metal anodes will be presented side by side highlighting their strength and weaknesses though selected basic investigations but also fundamental understanding. Especially Li||S and Mg||S systems will be compared, since sulfur is considered to be applicable for both cation-based chemistries. First, the complex chemistry involving Mg metal anodes followed by interface, interphase[5] and electrode designs, as well as characterizations of the Li metal anodes will be framed. As a last point, the important effect that the cathode materials exert on the performances of metal anodes will be elucidated.[6]

References
[1] R. Schmuch, R. Wagner, G. Hörpel, T. Placke, M. Winter, Nature Energy, 3, 267, (2018).
[2] M. Winter, B. Barnett, K. Xu, Chemical Reviews, 118, 11433, (2018).
[3] J. Betz, G. Bieker, P. Meister, T. Placke, M. Winter, R. Schmuch, Advanced Energy Materials, 9, 1803170, (2019).
[4] G. Bieker, D. Diddens, M. Kolek, O. Borodin, M. Winter, P. Bieker, K. Jalkanen, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 122, 21770, (2018).
[5] J. Becking, A. Gröbmeyer, M. Kolek, U. Rodehorst, S. Schulze, M. Winter, P. Bieker, M. C. Stan, Advanced Materials Interfaces, 4, 1700166, (2017).
[6] J. Betz, J.‐P. Brinkmann, R. Nölle, C. Lürenbaum, M. Kolek, M. C. Stan, M. Winter, T. Placke, Advanced Energy Materials, 1900574, (2019).

Biography:
Prof. Nae-Lih Nick Wu is currently a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at National Taiwan University (NTU). Prof. Wu’s research interests include the synthesis and characterizations of electrode and component materials for electrochemical energy storage devices, including supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries; development of advanced in-situ/in-operando analytic methodologies based on synchrotron facilities in charactering these materials and devices; and nano-materials synthesis and applications. He is currently serving as an associate editor of the Electrochemical Society journals.

Abstract:
Facile Synthesis and Enhanced Performance of High-Sulfur-Content Cathodes for Li-Sulfur Batteries

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising rechargeable battery system that has both high theoretical capacity (1675 mAh g-1) and energy density (2600 Wh kg-1). Moreover, S is inexpensive and nontoxic, making Li-S cell potentially suitable for large-scale energy storage applications. However, because of the poor electronic conductivity of S, it is a common strategy to use conductive nanostructured C materials as the hosts for S. Using high-S cathode is needed for maintaining high energy density of the cells. To take advantage of the low-cost nature of elemental S, a facile synthesis process enabling the use of elemental S as the starting material to achieve S-C composite cathodes with S contents up to 90% and promising electrochemical performance will be presented. Furthermore, remarkable effects of different C coatings on Al current collector on the performance of high S-content cathode will be discussed.

Biography:
Dr. Jie Xiao is currently a chief scientist and technical group manager of Batteries Materials & Systems Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. She also holds a joint position faculty position at Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry at University of Arkansas. Dr. Xiao obtained her Ph.D degree in Materials Chemistry from State University of New York at Binghamton. She has been leading research thrusts on both practical applications and fundamental study of energy storage materials and systems, spanning from micro-batteries for acoustic fish tags to advanced battery technologies for vehicle electrification and stationary applications. Dr. Xiao has named top 1% Clarivate Analytics Highly Cited Researcher since 2017. She has published more than 100 peer-reviewed journal papers (Google H-index: 64), 2 book chapters and holds 15 US patents in the area of energy storage research area.

Abstract:
Battery500 Consortium: Addressing the Fundamental Challenges to Enable Next-generation Battery Technologies

The thermodynamically instable nature of lithium metal in liquid electrolytes significantly plagues the implementation of the high-energy rechargeable lithium battery technology in electrical vehicles. Although many approaches have been proposed to rescue Li metal anodes, most of the work are performed in small-scale coin cells and tested in the conditions drastically different from the reality. A full knowledge of Li metal activities at the cell level is lacking but extremely critical for the success of developing next-generation rechargeable Li metal batteries. This talk will discuss the fundamental challenges of utilizing Li metal anode in at cell-level and demonstrate a prototypic 350 Wh/kg lithium metal pouch cell > 250 stable cycling.

Biography:
Prof. Dr. Yong Yang is distinguished professor in Chemistry in Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University. He obtained PhD degree in Chemistry from Xiamen University in 1992.  His major research interests are new electrode/electrolyte materials for Li/Na-ion batteries and interfacial reaction mechanism study in electrochemical energy storage systems. He has published over 220 papers in referred international journals such as Nature Energy, Energy and Environmental Science and Advanced Materials. He has obtained several national/international research awards, e.g., Excellent Contribution Award given by Chinese Electrochemical Society in 2017 and Technology Award presented by IBA (International Battery Materials Association) in 2014.

Abstract:
Toward a durable SEI film for Li-ion Batteries with high energy density

Weimin Zhaoa, Bizhu Zhengb, Haodong Liuc, Fucheng Rena Yong Yanga,b

 aCollege of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China
b
State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College
of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China
c
Department of Nanoengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla 92093, United States

The research and development of lithium ion batteries are strictly restricted by several challenges, particularly the severe capacity degradation of the batteries at high voltage and elevated temperature. In this work, beneficial surface films are simultaneously formed on both electrodes of a 4.5 V LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 pouch cell via reduction and oxidation polymerizations of a novel multifunctional additive Tripropargyl Phosphate (TPP).  The results demonstrate that the addition of 1.0 wt% TPP into the pouch cell not only improves its initial coulombic efficiency by 4.4 %, but also remarkably enhances its cycling stability at both 25 ºC and 55 ºC. The enhanced cycling stability at high temperature can be attributed to the capture of free radical such as H+ in the

electrolyte and the construction of robust protective films on the surface of the electrodes. These two effects significantly mitigate the decomposition of Ethyl Methyl Carbonate (EMC), reduce the dissolution of transition metal from cathode and eliminate the formation of cracks inside the LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 and graphite particles.

Biography:
Dr. Karim Zaghib holds a master (1987) and a doctorate (1990) in Electrochemistry from the Institut national polytechnique de Grenoble, and an HDR (2002) from Pierre-et-Marie-Curie University. He is currently General Director at the Center of excellence in transportation electrification and energy storage of Hydro-Quebec [CETEES], CEO of SCE France and CTO of InnovHQ and HQ Energy Storage [HQES]. His work contributes to the development of lithium-ion battery materials. He is co-inventor of over 550 patents. He is also the author of 393 scientific publications and editor/co-editor of nearly 20 books, including Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology (2016), High Performance of Li-Ion and Li-Polymer Batteries (2004) and Lithium and Li-ion Batteries (2003).

Abstract:
Solid state Li-Metal Batteries from materials to systems

A. Mauger 1, C.M. Julien 1, M. Armand 2, J.B. Goodenough 3 and K. Zaghib4

1 Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), CNRS UMR 7590, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, France
2
CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico de Alava, Albert Einstein 48, Ed. CIC, 01510 Miñano, Spain
3
Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C2201, Austin, TX 78712, USA
4
Centre of Excellence in Transportation Electrification and Energy Storage Hydro-Québec, 1806, boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes Quebec, Canada J3X 1S1

HQ-CNRS started to work on lithium metal with polymer electrolyte in lithium rechargeable batteries in 1979. Since then, battery research has expanded worldwide. Several new polymers, solid electrolytes and ionic liquids with improved conductivity have resulted from a better understanding of the major parameters controlling ion migration, such as favorable polymer structure, phase diagram between solvating polymer and lithium salt, and the development of new lithium counter-anions.  In spite of the progress so far, the quest for a highly conductive dry polymer at room temperature is still continuing and all-lithium-polymer battery (LPB) developers presently face the challenge of whether to heat the PEO-based polymer electrolyte to enable high-power performance, as required for electric vehicle and energy storage or develop polymer electrolytes conductive at RT. LPB developers have explored both the high-temperature and low-temperature options.

 This presentation provides an overview and progress in developing three battery technologies:

1. Lithium-metal-based batteries made from dry polymer and ionic liquid-polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries with olivine (LFP and LMFP).

2. All solid-state batteries using Li-NMC

3. High voltage composite polymer-ceramic for all-solid-state batteries.

We compare the electrochemical performances, the energy density, the cost, and safety of Li-ion batteries vs. solid-state batteries. In this presentation we will explain the process from materials to the system (cell, module and pack).